Des poux pleins la tête, et de l'angoisse plein le bide, les enfants perdus veillent leurs doutes et leurs tristesses dans le Pays Imaginaire. Fantasies become mass produced, a child’s fantasies then become right or wrong, depending on how they correspond with the version on the screen.3, Some of Disney’s sanitizing efforts have had further-reaching effects on the meaning of the tales. Dans le cadre des journées « Je suis psychothérapeute d’enfants » organisées par les Séminaires Psychanalytiques de Paris, le Docteur NASIO donnera une conférence le vendredi 6 novembre 2020. How many more innocent souls must be tainted before the world sees Peter Pan for the menace he is? En outre, un spécialiste en psychanalyse a affirmé que les adultes qui souffrent du syndrome de Peter Pan sont souvent issus d’une famille ayant des parents trop protecteurs. 5,17,24 He was the first to create a fully synchronized sound track for a cartoon—in the 1928 production Steamboat Willie. Often a rider, if he is not to be parted from his horse, is obliged to guide it where it wants to go; and so in the same way, the ego is in the habit of transforming the id’s will into action as if it were its own”9 (p. 15). Après une première apparition en 1902 dans Le Petit Oiseau blanc, c'est grâce à la pièce de théâtre Peter Pan dont la première eut lieu en décembre 1904, que le héros de James Matthew Barrie va connaître une renommée durable et internationale. Some time ago, an article in the New York Times proclaimed: “In saloons, in graduate seminars, in barbershops across the land, whenever particular people ask, who, truly, are the giants of the Twentieth Century— who defined reality as we know it—three names loom: Freud, Einstein, Walt Disney.” 20. 11. SWING OR SLOW / Rythms'n'Books talks about the flow : Je vais contredire la presse qui en a déjà parlé, en affirmant que ce n'est pas un conte revisité de Peter Pan, mais plutôt une psychanalyse du disney Peter Pan, beaucoup plus intéressant à mes yeux qu'une simple histoire pour enfant remodelée et réaménagée. 15. L’histoire de Peter Pan a souvent été réduite à l’image naïve de cet enfant rieur et insouciant, mais au-delà de l’enfant léger, Peter porte en lui la douleur de l’abandon de sa mère. But it is not an ordinary tree that these adapters leave out. Le contraste évident entre Peter Banning (l’adulte sérieux) et Peter Pan (l’adulte espiègle) représente parfaitement la hantise de Peter Pan : non pas vieillir, mais grandir26. Bref, les garçons demeurent, dans l’inconscient, prisonniers de leurs fantasmes de castration et Wendy de la rivalité maternelle. On the level of external reality, the boy recognizes he is so much smaller than his rival father and desired mother that he sees as absurdly hopeless any wish to defeat father and satisfy mother. Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment, New York: Vintage, 1977. He experiences it as bad when it does not satisfy. 3, 1939-40, pp. He is loyal, he is clean (much has been made of Disney’s emphasis on cleanliness in works such as Schickel’s24 and Brody’s4). New York Times, Saturday, Dec. 3, 1977, Sect. However, those who study children directly would disagree. Five years later, Freud published his Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Thus, he must remain a helpless infant. His most rewarding experience: “‘The whole damn thing, the fact that I was able to build an organization and hold it” (Schickel). Les enfants sont condamnés à rester des enfants par la menace de castration personnifiée par le Capitaine-crocodile. Eric Fromm sees Mickey Mouse in a different light. By and large Disney Productions attempted, as an artistic policy, to be asexual. Perhaps Disney invested his emotional energes in himself and his ego ideal, which finally became concrete in the form of Mickey Mouse years later. Disney’s version of Pinocchio similarly robbed the character of the opportunity to develop and grow. In the beginning of Disney's documentary detailing the suspect's "adventures," so-called, with three little British children, we meet our elfin delinquent locked in a struggle with his own escaped shadow. In this book Freud linked dreams to unconscious conflict resolution, defined the structure of dreams, and posited the suspension of everyday logical thinking in the chaotic, primitive, paradoxical world of the unconscious. La psychanalyse a uniquement à délier et dénouer les nœuds et ficelles dont nous parlions précédemment [2]. “Children are not upset by even the more horrible scenes in the comics as long as the reason for the threat of torture is clear and the issues are well stated.” The authors go on to say that if a child has a reaction to reading a comic book, most likely the cause for that reaction comes from the child, not the book. Mickey is an incarnate of one of the universal parts of the human psyche, the ego ideal. At the same time Disney is always certain that Donald gets his comeuppance, thus promulgating the values of society, perhaps almost in the fear that viewers would find Donald so appealing that they might be tempted to emulate him. See? Although critics have examined Disney’s work since its beginning, the psychoanalytic approach is new. Such observations may lead one to wonder about the culture that both feeds upon and nurtures such lessons. Because of his sexual neutrality, sexual envy and jealousy do not occur in the unconscious of the viewer, making Mickey a safe identification object. 1923 is a key date in Freud’s life for two reasons. They serve as guides, advice givers and teachers. Thus, Disney praises and extols what psychoanalysis would try to cure. Now that Mickey Mouse is over fifty years old, the critics are reexamining Disney’s creations. That stare... the stare of an eldritch abomination. Disney won a special Oscar for Ferdinand.’7. However, there he prefers to look at the crowd and smell the flowers—he is released from the ring, the object of scorn. Thus another aspect of the cartoons was sanitized and made safe for public consumption. Like Perrault, Disney was entrepreneur, but he also gave his public what it wanted to see. Freud notes that if parents or teachers severely criticize a child, he may retreat, withdrawing into a fantasy world in which he pretends himself to be his own ego ideal. 3. Séminaires Psychanalytiques de Paris : Qui tire les ficelles ? Tel : 07 52 07 07 07 It is the tree that Cinderella planted over the grave of her mother and watered with her tears. ; John J. Fitzpatrick, Ph. True, Einstein corresponded with Freud and also did many things unconsciously, but somehow the link between Disney and Freud seems clearer: to understand one can be useful to understanding the other. Perhaps Disney also rewrote Pinocchio.17,24 The author, Carlo Collodi, had Pinocchio indiscriminately squash the cricket who had offered to help him.24 Jiminy’s fate was obviously different in the Disney version. He then reveals that he knows Wendy's name, family, location, and daily activities because he's been watching her and her siblings from behind her window curtains for years. Au début des années 1980, le psychologue américain formé à l’Université de l’Illinois, Dan Kiley, popularise un profil psychologique désormais célèbre et connu du grand public sous le nom de complexe ou syndrome de Peter Pan [1]. Freud’s concept of the mind’s structure can be useful in explaining the appeal of Disney’s characters because many of them (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy and others) embody universal aspects of the personality: id, ego and superego. Le succès du concept a surfé sur la vague psycho-pop (pop-psychology en américain), abréviation de l’expression psychologie populaire. C'est un très joli voyage, qui fait réfléchir, qui émeut, qui serre le coeur, et défait les regrets. 92110 Clichy, Rodolphe Oppenheimer, Psychothérapeute Psychanalyste à Paris, 2020 Copyright © Rodolphe Oppenheimer - - Tous droits réservés. The second duck is a devil (the playfulness of the Duck’s id is reminiscent of the “It” in Georg Groddeck’s Book of the It, published also in 1923. and exhorts Donald to go fishing and have fun. The bad object is destroyed so that the good can continue to live. There is an additional device used in various Disney cartoons with appeal to adults. 5. Fromm discusses Mickey Mouse in Escape from Freedom and believes that his audience is drawn by recognizing “something that is very close to its own emotional life” (p. 153), i.e., a small creature overwhelmed by a large society. (After a careful analysis of the economic circumstances of the times, Sachs preempts the argument that the slave economy made, machines unnecessary.)2. They include Thumper the rabbit and Flower the skunk in Bambi; Timothy the mouse in Dumbo; the mice in Cinderella; Tinkerbell in Peter Pan; the talkative owl in The Sword and the Stone; the advisor mouse in Ben and Me; and of course Jiminy the Cricket in Pinocchio. Qu’est-ce que le syndrome de Münchhausen par procuration ? Instead, at times, there is a more subtle message admonishing the child either not to grow up or to grow up too suddenly—depriving the child, either way, of the exciting sense of mastery and the full wonder of childhood. 1. Le Pays Imaginaire, là où tu rêves ta vie en couleur bariolée, t' attends toujours. All rights reserved. Insight into this period of a child’s life can be obtained in a study of the work of Melanie Klein. Little could she (or her younger brothers) know of the darkness lurking within Pan's black little heart. Why did Disney make these changes in the stories? Disney had little leisure in his childhood, and perhaps had less time as an adult to reflect on the games of children or to talk with them firsthand. J'ai grandit... Mon âme aussi. Compared to Freud’s rider on the horse, he would be a weaker equestrian able only to follow the horse. Une nouvelle interprétation du mythe de Peter Pan : comme Peter Pan, l'enfant triste est en apparence un enfant léger, gai, innocent et sans coeur qui, à la suite d'une tragédie ou parce qu'il a été sommé de devenir trop brutalement adulte, s'accroche désespérement au pays de son enfance. 14. 404-424. This state of affairs continues through the first trimester of life and is called the “paranoid/schizoid position.” In the second half of the first year, the infant comes to realize that the breast that feeds is the same one as one that does not. He held onto everything. Fromm denies internal biological conflict, thus creating the illusion that the inevitable conflict between id and superego is solvable only with an “enlightened civilization”: a contradiction in terms, as in Freud’s Civilization and Its Discontents. Her punishment is not as richly symbolic as in the Grimm version, but he does dispose of this bad part-object. Studying Freud and other early psychoanalysts can lead to a better understanding of children and consequently to appreciating the effects of some of Disney’s works. Pour être tenu informé des prochaines conférences données par le Dr NASIO, Nous sommes plus précisément au pays des rêves et de leurs représentations. At times the machines take on uniquely human qualities in their portrayal as playthings. In the Brothers Grimm the prince carries Snow White away in her coffin, causing her to spit up the poisonous apple and come to life (as opposed to the kiss in the Disney version). A.A. Brill). It's the end of the year, and we're looking back at some of the biggest news stories of 2019 and why they matter. A neurologist by training, Freud was fascinated by the patients at Charcot’s Clinic in Paris. Déplacer un concept inconscient dans le conscient peut faire des ravages. This investment of interest in the human body is, of course, consistent with Freud’s concept of narcissism. For if he grows to become a big bull, he must face the matador in the bull ring. Theodore Adorno takes this view in describing the constant reiteration and reinforcement of values in morality plays on television, “… It is feared that people would really follow their instinctual urges and conscious insights unless continuously reassured from the outside that they must not do so”1 (p. 478). For example, for the first year and a half of life, the most pleasurable zone was that around the mouth, which permitted the child to sexually enjoy the suck of the breast or bottle. Dans le cadre des journées « Je suis psychothérapeute d’enfants » He directs a ten-bed ward for adolescents with emotional problems. Adorno defines that concept as the use of psychoanalysis to understand people—not to help them grow, but to trap them.1 That is Ferdinand’s fate: he is trapped into childhood for life. As the child puts the good and bad together, he enters what is called the “depressive position”: the breast that feeds is also the breast that frustrates. In the end, the children finally manage to escape both Hook's mad obsession and Pan's psychopathy (at least, until Peter goes after Wendy's daughter years later), but how many other children have fallen prey to this evil mastermind? In 1900, partially as an outgrowth of that interest, Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams. [1] Dan Kiley, Le Syndrome de Peter Pan : ces hommes qui ont refusé de grandir, Robert Laffont, coll. Is Hook merely an Ahab, driven by a dark obsession with vengeance against he who has terribly wronged him? She also explained how the child saw other people (called “objects” in psychoanalytic theory) in his or her environment. Thus, the ego is caught between the instinctive pressures of the id on the one hand and the rules and restrictions of society on the other.9. We can only presume that his shadow, so repulsed by Pan's unsung crimes against humanity, escaped the clutches of his host in a desperate bid for freedom. En effet, la figure de la mère est très importante dans l’œuvre de Barrie. It is unclear just how Einstein is related to Freud and Disney. One is not so afraid of falling as of jumping.21’. Freud highlighted the intense conflicts seething within the individual: the ego’s entrapment between the id and the superego, and struggles between the two primordial instincts of life (Eros and libido) and death (Thanatos). 1. “Thus, in its reaction to the id, it (the ego) is like a man on horseback who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse; with this difference, that the rider tries to do so with his own strength while the ego uses borrowed forces (from the id). Nippon's Peter Pan would whoop Disney's Peter Pan anyday... Well yea it's very tame. In his own sometimes comical, sometimes sad, but usually inept way, he goes along with whatever is happening. by Joan Riviere, revised by James Strachey). Which leads me to my next point: PROOF #3: PETER PAN IS A COMMUNIST DICTATOR. Again, Melanie Klein emphasizes the importance of the “part-object,” either all good or all bad. Disney’s version is unique in that its fairy godmother is split into good and bad parts, depicted as a good and a bad fairy. The hungry infant does not experience the whole mother, only that part of the mother (“part-object”) that feeds—the breast. Not only has Pan done such a thing to a fellow human; he clearly ENJOYED mutilating Captain Hook, so much so that he has turned his gory feat into a beloved children's tale. When a bee stings Ferdinand, people from the village mistake his running about in pain for ferocity. Quant à la « psychologie populaire », la psycho-pop, on la désigne en Angleterre (le pays de Peter Pan), par l’expression : psychologie naïve — folk psychology en anglais. This story then comes full circle. While this material is clearly a part of the child, its expression may take many forms. Yet their intense violence and vivid imagery frequently occurs in the guise of dreams. Marcuse, Herbert, Epilogue: Neo-Freudian Revisionism, in Eros and Civilization, a Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. Ainsi, ils sont très affectés par l’angoisse de passer à l’âge adulte, et veulent toujours rester dépendants de leurs parents. [2] Cf. Modern Library Edition, 1938 (trans. Mickey is an ego ideal. Without this pre-oedipal material, the films’ intense feelings become more acceptable to adults, who can intellectually interpret them. Four films using the Disney sanitizing/sterilizing process are Cinderella, Snow White, Pinocchio and The Three Little Pigs. Je suis psychanalyste et je dis la vérité Between these 18 months, the baby becomes more aggressive and starts to bite and teethe. Grotjahn, Martin, M.D., Ferdinand and the Bull, Psychoanalytic Remarks about a Modern Totem Animal, American Imago, 1, No. 4 (Authorized translation under supervision of Joan Riviere), London: Hogarth Press, 1950). Fitzpatrick, John J. Psychoanalytic Perspectives on the Human Life Cycle, Blueprint (Institute of Human Relations, New Orleans, March 1977). 310 pages. En effet, la véritable scène du conte britannique n’est-elle pas le Neverland, le nulle-part de l’inconscient, que les enfants rejoignent le soir en s’endormant ? To what purpose, however, is unknown; however, it likely has something to do with Pan's vicious rivalry with Captain Hook. Who is Miles Morales in Marvel’s Spider-Man: Miles Morales? Similarly, the death of the wicked witch is altered in the Disney version. At the same time what the child fears even more is that somehow his own actions may cause the death of those who love him.15 These murderous impulses may be related to Sartre’s description of anguish. Je viens de prendre un cours de philo gratos, grâce à Michael et son Monde à Lui, et grâce à Laurianne, mon amie, qui me l'a fait cadeau, et que je remercie encore beaucoup. She discusses the infant’s first experience with other people. That growth from amorphous, indistinct latency into unique development is lost as Disney gives the pre-pubescent Dwarfs as much character as any other subject in the film.3. Brody, Michael, M.D., The Wonderful World of Disney—Its Psychological Appeal, American Imago, Vol. If he acts ferociously he will be taken to the bull ring and killed; hence, he must opt for the smelling of flowers and never grow up. At the same time Freud recognized the close connection between self-esteem and emotional investment in the self (narcissistic libido): when loved, one feels better.

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