[64] With the advent of the French Revolution in 1789, Protestants were granted equal rights with their Roman Catholic counterparts. Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not very different from Mazarin's before him or Colbert's after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis. Held numerous offices, of which: Legitimised on 22 November 1681. He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial. For the French musical about him, see, "Louis Quatorze" redirects here. Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale, were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. [117] Europe came to admire France for its military and cultural successes, power, and sophistication. If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's in the 16th century. The Queen encouraged Bellier to deflower the 15 year old king and ensure that he was capable of producing heirs. [46] Furthermore, Louis' librarian and translator Arcadio Huang was Chinese.[47][48]. It is one of the oldest in Europe. Louis outlived most of his immediate legitimate family. France established contact with Francis II Rákóczi and promised support if he took up the cause of Hungarian independence. [66], In light of his foreign and domestic policies during the early 1680s, which were perceived as aggressive, Louis's actions, fostered by the succession crises of the late 1680s, created concern and alarm in much of Europe. The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the League of Augsburg and disbanded the Grand Alliance. [16] The most important arrest, from Anne's point of view, concerned Pierre Broussel, one of the most important leaders in the Parlement de Paris. [104] At other times, he would adopt mundane roles before appearing at the end in the lead role. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets. German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success. French military superiority might have allowed him to press for more advantageous terms. Séguier was the person who had interrogated Anne in 1637, treating her like a "common criminal" as she described her treatment following the discovery that she was giving military secrets and information to Spain. Those Protestants who had resisted conversion were now to be baptised forcibly into the established church. Son premier amour, Marie Mancini, était la nièce de Mazarin, mais ce dernier ainsi que Anne d’Autriche s’opposèrent fermement à cette union, et l’entrevue du 22 juin 1659 avant l’exil de la princesse loin de la Cour fut la dernière. The Queen also gave a partial Catholic orientation to French foreign policy. In 1661, the treasury verged on bankruptcy. As a result of the fresh British perspective on the European balance of power, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht between Louis, Philip V of Spain, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, and the Dutch Republic. He may initially have been inclined to abide by the partition treaties, but the Dauphin's insistence persuaded him otherwise. [44], France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. Vehemently anti-French, William (now William III of England) pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance. However, French armies held significant advantages over their opponents; an undivided command, talented generals like Turenne, Condé and Luxembourg and vastly superior logistics. In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. This situation did not last long, and Mazarin's unpopularity led to the creation of a coalition headed mainly by Marie de Rohan and the duchess of Longueville. This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 14:38. Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria. The Fronde years planted in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the ancient capital as soon as possible, never to return.[20]. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years. On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to Louis or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of monarchy. Conseil royal des finances ("Royal Council of Finances") who was headed by the "chef du conseil des finances" (an honorary post in most cases)—this was one of the few posts in the council that was opened to the high aristocracy. Shortly thereafter, the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia allowed Condé's army to return to aid Louis and his court. The taille was reduced at first; financial officials were forced to keep regular accounts, auctioning certain taxes instead of selling them privately to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unauthorized exemptions (for example, in 1661 only 10 per cent from the royal domain reached the King). During her time as the Queen's chambermaid, she had the intimate duty of giving the Queen her enema.[1]. Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries. Françoise de Prez (5 January 1711 – 1715). Died of a stroke; married on 10 October 1745 to Timothée de Vaultier de Petitmont. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. [101], Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. [45] Louis also received a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung, at Versailles in 1684. Austria, ruled by the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, ceded all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace to France and acknowledged her de facto sovereignty over the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Verdun, and Toul. Titles Femme couchee sur fond Louis XIV (Proper) Artist Henri Matisse, French, 1869 - 1954; Medium lithograph; Credit Line Gift of the Estate of Dorothy Steiner, 2004.107; Object Name print; Classification Prints; See More of the Collection. Reform proved difficult because the taille was levied by officers of the Crown who had purchased their post at a high price: punishment of abuses necessarily lowered the value of the post. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland, Rupert's Land, and Acadia in the Americas to Anne. [42] Then, in 1682, after the reception of the Moroccan embassy of Mohammed Tenim in France, Moulay Ismail, Sultan of Morocco, allowed French consular and commercial establishments in his country. From her marriage, she was named dame Louise de Maisonblanche, fille naturelle du Roi. Pierre Beauchamp, his private dance instructor, was ordered by Louis to come up with a notation system to record ballet performances, which he did with great success. With the exception of the current Royal Chapel (built near the end of his reign), the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682. [110], Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne. Certainly, Rigaud was concerned with detail and depicted the king's costume with great precision, down to his shoe buckle.[102]. De Catherine Bellier, baronne de Beauvais, qui eut le privillège de le "déniaiser", à Madame de Maintenon, qu'il épousa secrètement, Louis XIV eut de nombreuses favorites, et de nombreuses filles adultérines. Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection. This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer.[104]. [35] Although Brandenburg was forced out of the war by the June 1673 Treaty of Vossem, in August an anti-French alliance was formed by the Dutch, Spain, Emperor Leopold and the Duke of Lorraine. Under pressure from his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg, Charles II named the Archduke Charles as his sole heir. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. In 1681, Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. Barely a year later, the Duke of Burgundy, the eldest of the Dauphin's three sons and then heir to Louis, followed his father. Louis's formal style was "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". It is now time that I govern them myself. Look ahead to the TV shows still set to premiere in the rest of 2020, including "Selena: The Series" and "The Stand. Just as the first Fronde (the Fronde parlementaire of 1648–1649) ended, a second one (the Fronde des princes of 1650–1653) began. In July 1695, the city of Namur, occupied for three years by the French, was besieged by an allied army led by William III. Otherwise, he may simply have desired to end the remaining divisions in French society dating to the Wars of Religion by fulfilling his coronation oath to eradicate heresy. Philip, Duke of Anjou, thus became Philip V, King of Spain. Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. In addition, most of the princes refused to deal with Mazarin, who went into exile for a number of years. With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. Louis' policy of the Réunions may have raised France to its greatest size and power during his reign, but it alienated much of Europe. Louise Renée de Prez (Montfort l'Amaury, 27 October 1699 – 1705). People in France were complaining about the expansion of royal authority, the high rate of taxation, and the reduction of the authority of the Parlement de Paris and other regional representative entities. Shipwrecked on an island, a woman finds it difficult to deal with an uncouth beachcombing hermit. In 1648 France was the leading European power, and most wars pivoted around its aggressiveness. The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold, the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. For other uses, see, King of France and Navarre, from 1643 to 1715. Louis XIV Add to Wish List. Add the first question. Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in 1670. All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind; the Spanish marriage would be very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, and because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy for the next 50 years would be based upon this marriage. Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression. Anne kept the direction of religious policy strongly in her hand until 1661; her most important political decisions were to nominate Cardinal Mazarin as her chief minister and the continuation of her late husband's and Cardinal Richelieu's policy, despite their persecution of her, for the sake of her son. In France in 1649, the services of the Four Musketeers are needed again, and they run into some old foes from twenty years before. She was not very clever, she never learned french language well: she was almost alone.Died on 30 July 1683 in Versailles in the age of 45 years. [78] Charles II acknowledged that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian. They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. All the details and rules were compressed in five positions of the bodies codified by Beauchamp. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name". To support the reorganized and enlarged army, the panoply of Versailles, and the growing civil administration, the king needed a good deal of money. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine. By keeping him in his post, Anne was giving a sign that the interests of France and her son Louis were the guiding spirit of all her political and legal actions. Its weaknesses included an inefficient financial system that was hard-pressed to pay for its military adventures, and the tendency of most other powers to gang up against it. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti. Once finally declared, the War of the Spanish Succession lasted almost until Louis's death, at great cost to him and France. Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside of Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration. Additionally, Mazarin's relations with Marie Mancini were not good, and he did not trust her to support his position. [10] This action abolished the regency council and made Anne sole Regent of France. [91] This marriage, though never announced or publicly discussed, was an open secret and lasted until his death. She was niece of Cardinal Mazarin. As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. This is an incomplete list of Louis XIV's illegitimate children. A conflict with Spain marked his entire childhood, while during his reign, the kingdom took part in three major continental conflicts, each against powerful foreign alliances: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. Thus, on his deathbed, Louis' heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou, Burgundy's younger son. But later he began to pay too much attention to the ladies of his court. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family. As it was French custom to imitate the king, Catherine Bellier's sexual favors suddenly became high demand. [2] Their relationship lasted for two years, after which the queen dowager awarded Bellier an estate and a pension. The main weakness arose from an old bargain between the French crown and nobility: the king might raise taxes without consent if only he refrained from taxing the nobles. Composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. This idealisation of the monarch continued in later works, which avoided depictions of the effect of the smallpox that Louis contracted in 1647. Sixteenth-century rulers had often issued medals in small numbers to commemorate the major events of their reigns. Later, the Battle of Ramillies delivered the Low Countries to the Allies, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied forces. For his part, Voltaire saw Louis' vanity as the cause for his bellicosity: It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves. [77] Indeed, in the event of war, it might be preferable to be already in control of the disputed lands. "[131][132] Louis is recorded by numerous eyewitnesses as having said on his deathbed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." The expenditure was around 18 million pounds, leaving a deficit of 8 million. [citation needed]. [12] She left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Died of hypothermia after falling into a lake. The Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes and repealed all the privileges that arose therefrom. [125][126], In 1848, at Nuneham House, a piece of Louis' mummified heart, taken from his tomb and kept in a silver locket by Lord Harcourt, Archbishop of York, was shown to the Dean of Westminster, William Buckland, who ate it.[127]. Johan de Witt, Dutch Grand Pensionary from 1653 to 1672, viewed them as crucial for Dutch security and against his domestic Orangist opponents. Protestant lords called on the Dutch Prince William III of Orange, grandson of Charles I of England, to come to their aid. It is believed that Louis's policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde, when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some. Louis foresaw an underaged heir and sought to restrict the power of his nephew Philip II, Duke of Orléans, who, as his closest surviving legitimate relative in France, would likely become regent to the prospective Louis XV. Defeats, famine, and mounting debt greatly weakened France. Stillborn. On the other hand, there are historians who view this as an exaggeration. Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state)—composed of the king, the crown prince, the controller-general of finances, and the secretaries of state in charge of various departments. [123] The historian and philosopher Voltaire wrote: "His name can never be pronounced without respect and without summoning the image of an eternally memorable age". In 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette discovered the Mississippi River. The prospect of Dutch defeat led Leopold to an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia on 23 June, followed by another with the Republic on 25th. [1] Brought up in Paris by her mother, she did not receive the same attention that the daughters of Madame de Montespan and Louise de La Vallière did. [65] Then, in 1688, Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, Archbishop of Cologne, an ally of France, died. Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. Louis felt in love with her and they were several years together until he had to marry Marie-Therese of Austria. Before this happened, Louis expected William's expedition to England to absorb his energies and those of his allies, so he dispatched troops to the Rhineland after the expiry of his ultimatum to the German princes requiring confirmation of the Truce of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises. Legitimised on 20 December 1673. Philippe Charles de Prez (Gallins-la-Queue, 8 August 1718 – February 1719). Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. In 1661, Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse, and in 1669, the Académie d'Opéra, important driving events in the evolution of ballet. Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France. . It's good family entertainment, thought the sword fights were great.Really liked Susie Amy as Valentine, think she was good for the role, and Marcus Jean Pirae was good as well as Villeroi.It wasn't brilliantly written, it was a bit 'storytelling' but the cast was great - Gerard Depardiu didn't do very much though - it seemed as though he was drunk from time to time! [24] Louis was able to capitalize on the widespread public yearning for law and order, that resulted from prolonged foreign wars and domestic civil strife, to further consolidate central political authority and reform at the expense of the feudal aristocracy. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. Despite evidence of affection early on in their marriage, Louis was never faithful to Maria Theresa. Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu's Persian Letters. On 18 November 1686, Louis underwent a painful operation for an anal fistula that was performed by the surgeon Charles Felix de Tassy, who prepared a specially shaped curved scalpel for the occasion. By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power. Louis Bernard de Prez (Montfort l'Amaury, 17 March 1701). Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. European apprehension at growing French might and the realisation of the extent of the dragonnades' effect (discussed below) led many states to abandon their alliance with France. Marlborough and Eugene met again at the Battle of Oudenarde, which enabled them to invade France. [107], Louis greatly emphasized etiquettes in ballet dancing, evidently seen in "La belle danse" (the French noble style). Louis Charles Timothée de Prez (14 October 1704 – 1746). (Montfort l'Amaury, 4 September 1706). Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. She was niece of Cardinal Mazarin. His choice was Madame de Maintenon, who was the best educated woman at the court. During the Eighty Years' War with Spain, France supported the Dutch Republic as part of a general policy of opposing Habsburg power. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catherine_Bellier&oldid=985534884, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Oliver Mallick: « Le principal passage pour aller à la ville de Dom Anna » : Mme de Beauvais et la charge de première femme de chambre de la reine (1646-1666), in: F. L'Hôtel de Beauvais, hrsgg. By 1678, mutual exhaustion led to the Treaty of Nijmegen, which was generally settled in France's favour and allowed Louis to intervene in the Scanian War. [89] The king was, at first, put off by her strict religious practice, but he warmed to her through her care for his children. His greatest deed - he legitimized all his illegitimate children, gave them education, position in society and married them in such way, that they become real princes and princesses. After striking a deal with her old friend Marie de Rohan, who was able to impose the nomination of Charles de l'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf as minister of justice, Anne arrested Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, and the husband of their sister Anne Genevieve de Bourbon, duchess of Longueville. Louis was willing enough to tax the nobles but was unwilling to fall under their control, and only towards the close of his reign, under extreme stress of war, was he able, for the first time in French history, to impose direct taxes on the aristocratic elements of the population. Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne. Even while French Catholic leaders exulted, Pope Innocent XI still argued with Louis over Gallicanism and criticised the use of violence. This portrayal of the monarch was to be found in numerous media of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, theatre, dance, music, and the almanacs that diffused royal propaganda to the population at large. The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, but the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria, was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained. [118], Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure. Louvois, in particular, pledged to modernize the army and re-organize it into a professional, disciplined, well-trained force. It arose from two events in the Rhineland. "[8], It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule.[9]. D'Artagnan sings and fronts for slapstick cowardly Ritz brothers posing as musketeers. The treaty yielded many benefits for France. Further down the French line of succession in 1715 was the House of Conde, followed by the House of Conti (a cadet branch of the House of Conde). Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

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